Wheat standardized farming and sowing technology

The standard for planting wheat refers to the timely emergence of wheat after sowing. The seedlings are full of seedlings and seedlings. The plough layer is clear and dark, the soil is collapsed, and the moisture is suitable. The Huanghuaihai area reaches 5 leaves, 1 heart or 6 leaves and 1 heart before winter . The number of secondary roots is 5~8. The total number of stems per acre before winter reaches 1.5~1.8 times of the planned number of spikes . As a county, more than 85% of the wheat fields reach the standard of first and second seedlings. After winter and winter management, In the early spring, the first and second seedlings reached 90% . Such seedlings, pre-winter, spring and post-administration are active, laying the foundation for the seedlings of wheat harvest.


“Seven-point, three-way” refers to the importance of species and tubes and the energy invested in planting wheat for wheat harvest. It takes about half a month from the start of arable land to the county to plant seeds. It takes about 6-7 days for a piece of land to be planted from the arable land to the end of the planting. There are as many as 10 technical problems to be implemented from arable land to seeding . Including variety selection, chemical dressing, straw returning, deep tillage or deep pine and rolling, sputum, fertilization, sowing date, sowing amount, machine broadcast and improve the quality of the broadcast, post-mortem suppression, etc. Well, the quality of wheat seedlings before winter is high, and the management behind it is relatively simple. It is: chemical weeding in autumn, watering in winter, fertilization in spring, spraying in the flowering stage to prevent scab, and later “one spray and three defenses”. 10 production techniques should be carried out in 6~7 days of cultivation, and 5~6 techniques should be carried out 6~7 months after sowing. Tillage is a technology-intensive stage, high seeding quality is good, and management steps after sowing It takes a lot of effort to take the initiative, so the wheat production is "seven-point, three-point management."


If there is no emphasis on the cultivation and sowing of wheat, the ploughing layer will be ploughed, the ploughing will be poor, the seeding quality will be poor, the wheat will be seedlings, the seedlings will be weak, the population will be insufficient, and the winter will be vulnerable to freezing and drought, forming three types of seedlings, and promoting three types. Miao upgrade is very difficult, and the latter management is passive.


China's wheat production has averaged about 50 kilograms per mu from 1950 in the early years of the founding of New China to 349.5 kilograms per mu in 2014 . In terms of production technology, wheat production has experienced three stages: farmers using individual experience cultivation, agricultural departments to summarize farmers' experience, technology promotion and cultivation, agricultural science and technology personnel research single technology and integrated technology system for promotion and cultivation. Currently, modern wheat production should be Development towards the standardization of cultivation techniques.


Standardization refers to the unification of things and concepts in economics, technology, science and management, through the formulation, release and implementation of standardized procedures to achieve the best order and social and economic benefits. Standardization is an important means and necessary conditions for the organization of modern production; is a prerequisite for rational organization of specialized production; is the foundation of scientific management and modern management; improve product yield, quality, safety, health and technical assurance; reasonable use of resources, An effective way to save energy and save raw materials. After several years of scientific research and production practice of agricultural science and technology personnel, the allocation of key technical measures for wheat production technology and the demand for production factors ( such as fertilizer, pesticide, irrigation, sowing amount, sowing date, etc. ) have been estimated from The excessive application phase enters the appropriate amount and digital application stage. At this time, our standardized research on wheat production technology will effectively promote the development of wheat production in the direction of agricultural modernization.


The technical regulations for the standardized cultivation of wheat were prepared. First, it was closely integrated with the high-yield wheat production and green high-yield model of the Ministry of Agriculture, which met the requirements of high-yield and stable production, water control, fertilizer saving and medicine. Second, it is regional, practical, and operability. The third is to combine the active response technology to overcome climate disasters with the strain technology to mitigate the losses caused by disasters. The fourth is to improve the current wheat yield and the sustainable development of long-term wheat production.


All localities should integrate the technical regulations for standardized wheat tillage suitable for the region according to local climatic conditions and soil fertility. The following technical issues should be included in the regulations:


Variety selection: It is necessary to consider the winter and spring of the variety to adapt to the climatic conditions, the characteristics of the required fertilizer and water requirements of the variety and the level of irrigation and irrigation conditions, and the comprehensive resistance of the varieties.


Dressing of pesticides: prevention and control of pests in the ground and seedlings.


Straw returning: Considering the degree of straw shredding, the straw is ploughed into the ground. If deep pine technology is adopted, the rotary tilling requires a depth of 15 cm to cut the straw into the soil layer ; the irrigation water is collapsed, and if the moisture is suitable, it should be compacted.


Deep ploughing or deep loosening and rolling: deep plowing 23~25cm and then pressing or using deep pine 30~ 35cm and then using rotary tiller to rotate tillage, after rolling and sown, so that it can crush the shovel and soil, which is beneficial to the roots. Tie ; soil can prevent the seeder wheel from sinking into the soil to deepen the sowing depth. Deep plowing or subsoiling effect sustainable two years, so do not mid or deep plowing subsoiling, deep plowing or subsoiling a year, two years only to Rotary.


Making moisture: 0 to 40 cm soil layer relative water content less than 70% moisture to build, can be made to take reseeding moisture, or after sowing hooded water and promptly poured emergence of ground-breaking methods.


Fertilization: soil testing and formula fertilization, NPK fertilizer combination, filling the micro-fertilizer ; high-yield field using nitrogen fertilizer back-shifting technology, applying the base fertilizer at the time of sowing and leaving a proper amount of top dressing.


Sowing period: According to the high yield requirement, the total number of stems before winter, the number of basic seedlings, the number of tillers per plant, and the accumulated temperature before winter determine the sowing date of wheat. It is required to plant in the planting period, and the total number of stems per acre can be reached before winter. It is suitable for the group before winter. It is necessary to consider the winter and spring nature of the variety, and the spring varieties are suitable for late sowing.


Seeding rate: To determine the appropriate seeding rate, the tillering capacity and tillering rate of the wheat variety, the sowing date, the total number of stems per winter before the harvest, the germination rate of wheat seeds, the emergence rate of the field, and finally the plan to reach the ear The number does not cause the late fall of wheat. In modern winter wheat production, meteorological drought and low temperature are often encountered in autumn, winter and spring. Some wheat will be killed or frozen, and these factors should also be considered when determining the amount of wheat planted.


Machine sowing and improving the quality of sowing: First, it is recommended to use wheat wide-width precision seeding machine for sowing, second, to determine the suitable row spacing, wheat wide-width precision seeding machine is often too wide, pay attention to adjustment ; third is to achieve consistent line spacing, The sowing amount is accurate, the seeding depth is the same, the sowing depth is 3~5 cm ; the fourth is not to broadcast and not replay.


Repression after sowing: The planter with the pressure reducer should pay attention to the suppression with the suppression, pay attention to the quality of the suppression, and use the roller to suppress the seeding machine without the roller.


Article source: Wheat Industry Technical System Cultivation and Mechanical Research Office




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